1 BRASS Fire stained and lacquer fixed
2 BRASS Patination with bleed through border
3 BRASS Surface texturing with patination
4 COPPER Fire stained (deep) with lacquer fix
5 COPPER Light fire stain, abraded and lacquer fixed
6 COPPER Light patination, semi polished.
7 V. E STEEL Surface texturing with fire stain
8 V. E STEEL Blued with patination, lacquer fixed
9 V. E STEEL Full planish full patination, lacquer fixed
10 V. E STEEL Half planished, patination & semi polished
11 V. E STEEL Fire stained with patination (deep straw)
12 BRONZE Ancient etched with patination
The Silver 'coloured' metals
15 of the most commonly used silver metals in industry
1. PLATINUM. The high priest of precious metals. Heavier than lead and twice the value of gold. It takes 8 tons of mined ore to produce just 1 ounce of the pure metal. It is virtually impervious to oxide attack. Not easily worked.
2. SILVER 925. Pure silver and its compounds have many uses. It has been found to be a powerful antibiotic when ingested. It has a distinctive whiteness about it when polished, though this is short-lived as it tarnishes and dulls if left unmaintained.
3. 18 Ct WHITE GOLD. Often used to substitute platinum. This alloy of gold contains 75% gold with the remaining percentage shared with silver and palladium. Easy to work but with a greyish colour a preference to see this metal rhodium plated is common.
4. 9Ct WHITE GOLD. Contains over 60% silver giving it a whitish lustre. Commonly used as a higher value alternative to silver. Works with relative ease.
5. PALLADIUM. Used widly in the medical electronic and jewellery industry. Incredibly palladium left undisturbed at room temperature will absorb 900 times it’s own volume of hydrogen.
6. MILD STEEL. The most common metal used in industry. Easily worked, though not excessively so, It will almost always require surface treating as it’s pure form readily oxidises within minutes. Electroplates very well.
7. TITANIUM. A much revered alloy for high end design and engineering applications. Highly resistant to oxide attack and has extreme heat resistance. 35% lighter than steel and almost as strong as the toughest steel alloys. Not without a price! One of the most difficult metals to work.
8. ALUMINIUM. The most abundant metal on the planet. 10 times lighter than platinum and approximately 1/30,000 the value! Exceptionally light and lends itself well to most manufacturing processes. Problems when surface treating.
9. CHROME. Chromium is what gives ruby’s their red colour. Can be alloyed with mild steel to make stainless steel. It’s salts when dissolved in solution, can be used to chrome plate many different metals. One of the brightest most durable finishes.
10. NICKEL. Used as a base for chrome in the chrome plating process and has been used to compound alloys in coins for centuries, in recent years it’s use with jewellery alloys has been restricted as it can cause skin reactions.
11. STAINLESS STEEL.. A common alloy with many different grades formulated for a huge range of industrial applications from body piercings to engineering appliances for some of the world's most extreme environments.
12. WHITE METAL.. An alloy of exceptionally low melting point. specific grades will melt in hot water ! . Can be used to cast small intricate objects such as toy soldiers or door handles.
13. ZIRCONIUM. A metal of high corrosion resistance used in surgical instruments when alloyed with other metals. It is a common element found on the surface of the moon and other uses include artificial limb manufacture
14.TANTALUM. Used in the electronics industry for capacitor and resistor manufacture. Its a compound element for alloy fortification and causes no immune response when inside the body. With this in mind it can be used for the production of dental alloys.
15. NIOBIUM. An element used to add exceptional heat resistance to the alloys it compounds. It's alloys are widely used in the aircraft industry for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.
Red and yellow Metals / alloys
Bronze Used extensively for bearing manufacture as it has good self lubricating properties. An alloy of tin and copper, it casts well lending itself to the art and sculpture industry.
Brass. A similar alloy to bronze but with different physical properties The grade of brass in this sample CZ120, can be machined and cut with exceptional ease. CZ120 is an industry yardstick by which the machinability of all other alloys is gauged
9ct yellow gold. 37% gold. Despite it's low gold content, there is surprisingly little colour difference compared to it's higher value sister alloys.
18 ct yellow gold. 75% gold. As the gold content increases the alloy loses hardness and as consequence will tend to wear quicker than it's lower carat alternatives
Copper. A metal of extraordinary beauty displaying a deep red when polished. Extremely ductile and malleable. Requires surface treating to prevent tarnishing if newly polished red lustre is to be maintained.
9ct red gold. A precious metal look-alike to copper. Although not as rich in colour it will hold it's brilliance without tarnishing due to it's gold content.
18ct red gold. A higher value variant to it's lower carat alternative. Note the subtle colour difference.
Essentially there are only three metal colours. Red, yellow and silver. Red metals, rose gold for example derive their colour from copper. Yellow alloys can derive their 'yellowness' from precious and non precious metals. Gold is yellow but will change its colour when alloyed with other metals such as palladium as in white gold. Bronze or brass can look identical to gold but contain non.
Brass derives it's colour from copper (a red metal) and zinc (a blue-white metal). When zinc and copper are alloyed (a silver and red metal) a strange yellow hybrid results. All the above alloys are commercially available and are ocassionally combined for unusual aesthetics effects within the Rowland portfolio.
Textured, Patinated and Surface Tempered Colouring. The artificial colouring and texturing of metal can be employed to coordinate products with environments. Or to simply assist with producing remarkable and highly original work. As the product design can be tailored and styled to suit client preference, so too can the finish and material that renders it.
For an example of metal colouring click the link below
Low melting point alloys
Above; replica Tag Heure watch links reproduced in white metal. Hollow rear side of link ensured a substantial reduction in the overall weight of the finished garment. Despite this measure the top seen modelled by Boris Becker still weighed more than 40kg !
Nickel plated brass handle (Above left ) and beading ( above right) Beading has been matched to handle texture and finish. The handle was a bought in item.
Left; cast iron railings stripped of old white paint. Above; railing sections cleaned, polished and finished in electrophoretic lacquering
Materials available and used within Rowland portfolio
V.E Steel (low carbon)
High carbon steel
Pewter and low melt alloys
Gold ( all carats ) white, yellow, red.
Wood ( all commercially available varieties )
Textiles (used examples ) Leather, baize, felt, cotton twill, velvet,
Resin ( polyurethane & acrylic )
Shell/stone/semi precious minerals
Below; Precious metal jewellery in 18ct white, 18ct yellow and sterling silver.
Below : Mint stool produced in white gel coated fibreglass, aluminium, stainless steel.
Below ; Vitreous enamel pioneered by Rowland for it's use with furniture coverings. Glass hard and infinitely more durable than it's optional high end lacquer and paint alternatives.
Below; Salon plaque for world hair dressing Mark Hill. Mahoghany, marine ply, brass with 22ct gold plated brass scroll and inlay work.
Below. Mr and Mrs Smith Award trophies. Cast in simulated stone with lead ballast
Below; Abalone shell cut polished and mounted on gold plated silver frame. Taken from Rowland wedding tiara collection
Below; Boris Becker models watch link tunic. Watch links reproduced from original Tag Heure watch strap and cloned in white metal by Lee J Rowland.
Commissioned by Alexander Mcqueen
Pewter door beading for Andrew Manning. Original existing handle (above) required a texture matched inlay for wardrobe doors. Both items have been bright nickel plated.
This item £ 52.50 per linear metre
Below; matched beading awaits despatch.
Cast iron re-finishing
Finished railings installed. 67 individual sections made up this complete bannister. Electro phoretic lacquer gives a lower cost alternative to real gold plate or guilding
Left: Acrylic sheet and 3mm beech ply has been laminated here to create a distinctive combination of two contemporary materials. The shelving units where part of a private commission with another design company
Below ; 12mm beech ply in built up laminated sections formed individual shelf units mounted on wall pins. The shelves have been edged with a 6mm white acrylic fascia
Acrylic and beech ply shelf units